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Physical Parameters


The European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) is a long-term, marine-data initiative funded by the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund which, together with the Copernicus space programme and the Data Collection Framework for fisheries, implements the EU’s Marine Knowledge 2020 strategy.

EMODnet Physics ( is one of the seven domain-specific portals of the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet).

EMODnet-Physics map portal ( provides a single point of access to validated in situ datasets, products and their physical parameter metadata of European Seas and global oceans. More specifically, time series and datasets are made available, as recorded by fixed platforms (moorings, tide gauges, HF radars, etc.), moving platforms (ARGO, Lagrangian buoys, ferryboxes, etc.) and repeated observations (CTDs, etc.). The available themes are the temperature of the water column, the salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, sea level and sea level trends, wave height and period, wind and atmospheric pressure, optical properties (e.g. light attenuation, back scattering, turbidity, etc.), underwater sound pressure level (acoustic pollution), river runoff, other biogeochemical data (e.g. chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen, etc.), sea-ice coverage.

Acquisition of these physical parameters is largely an automated process based on a “federated” network infrastructure linking data providers and other marine data aggregating infrastructure. In particular, EMODnet Physics is strongly federated with two other European data aggregating infrastructures. One is the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service - In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre for operational data flow, while historical validated datasets are organised in collaboration with SeaDataNet and its network of National Oceanographic Data Centres. The NRT data go through a stricter quality control before NODCs validate the datasets for long-term storage and stewardship. This validation process ends when the metadata of the processed dataset are published in a CDI (Common Data Index). CMEMS-INSTAC and SDN-NODC subsets are integrated with other available sources to make the most comprehensive physical parameter data catalogues available. Thanks to international collaborative relationships to provide data access to – and preview for – coastal data in non-European areas (e.g. NOAA platforms for the US, IAPB platforms for the Arctic area, IMOS for Australia and others), EMODnet Physics catalogues are going beyond European borders to offer an even more exhaustive entry point to global-ocean physical observations.

The landing page ( is offering direct links to main services and (M2M) interfaces. The map page ( lets the user discover and access data per theme, platform, recording age, depth, provider, area.

For each connected dataset/platform, a dedicated platform page is available. These pages provide the user with metadata, plots, download features, platform products – e.g. monthly averages or wind plots – more info and links, as well as statistics on the use of the data from that platform. Data quality information is available in connection with datasets. A section on “Documentation and M2M” extends the metadata set and describes available machine-to-machine services (e.g. examples of how to call back the plot widgets, how to use ERDDAP catalogue, link to the THREDDS catalogue, etc.). All M2M and web interfaces are linked and the user can easily pass from one catalogue/service to another, selecting and using the one that fits his needs better.

Example of a glider page

Apart from these data, EMODnet Physics is developing interoperability services to facilitate machine-to-machine interaction and to provide further systems and services with European seas and ocean physical data and metadata. These features range from widgets to WxS OCG compliant services.

EMODnet Physics is offering more than 800.000 datasets and, in the past 2 years, it registered more than 140.000 manual data download requests, and more than 1.300.000 web services transactions.


  • Temperature and Salinity in the water column

Temperature, in the water column, is a vital component of the climate system and its variability. Salinity observations contribute to monitoring the global water cycle, ocean density and mass, etc. These in situ data are an important input for many ocean phenomena models, to validate and calibrate remote sensing observations and to understand the ocean’s role in the global climate system. In situ observation available in EMODnet Physics are taken from a variety of catalogues (e.g. CMEMS INSTAC, SDN, IOOS, AIMOS, etc.) linking platforms with a large range of spatial and temporal scales. EMODnet Physics data collection includes: ~2.000 moorings offering very high temporal resolution at specific locations, but with spatial resolution limited by density of the array; ~200 gliders and ~2.000 tagged animals that achieve much higher spatial resolution depending on endurance and other instrument characteristics; ~9.000 profiling floats (ARGO) delivering temperature profiles (nominally 0-2.000 m); ~130.000 spots along the tracks of research voyages of ship-based Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) observations providing full depth temperature observations; ~11.500 surface loads and ~270 ferrybox repeated transects providing high-resolution sea surface temperature datasets. Based on the CORA (Coriolis Ocean Dataset for Reanalysis), EMODnet Physics is making available a gridded (0,5 degree * 0,5 degree) monthly variation of the temperature, from early 1900 to 2016. Based on the SeaDataNet regional products (based on the SeaDataNet aggregated dataset - DIVA software v4.6.10 - mask: relative error threshold 0.5) it is making available regional temperature Climatology (1900-2013).

  • Sea Surface Currents

Ocean surface general circulation is responsible for significant surface transport of heat, salt, passive tracers and ocean pollutants. The existing surface current observing systems (moorings, Lagrangian drifters) capture much of this range. EMODnet Physics is combining these observations together with land-based HF radars observation that offer a high-resolution tool (with limited spatial coverage) for improved understanding of surface currents, eddies and air-sea fluxes, and exchange between coastal waters and the open ocean. The EMODnet Physics HFR catalogue (150 antennas) groups the European observation capacity (40 antennas) with other global sources to provide the user with one of the most exhaustive sources of HF Radar observations (see also GOOS-ObservingElementSpecification-HFRadar.pdf). Based on this catalogue, EMODnet Physics is also delivering an operational product of surface currents direction and intensity.

Figure 1. EMODnet Physics HFR catalogue (left) and the product (right)

  • River Runoff Data

River runoffs exert a strong influence in their neighbouring coastal area in several ways, modifying water stratification, introducing significant fluctuations in circulation patterns and modulating the impact of upwelling events. In the current context of a global decline of hydrometric networks, uncertainties include the river runoff reaching the coast and most of the water properties as temperature, salinity, etc. For this reason, river climatologies are generally imposed in the land boundaries of coastal or regional ocean models, ignoring river variability in flow and other associated properties. In any case, the main weakness of river climatologies is their incapacity to include the inter-annual variability, compared to watershed model applications that are in agreement with the main river flow trends. On the other hand, watershed models tend to overestimate river flows, especially during dry seasons. To tackle this user-need, EMODnet Physics developed a dedicated data infrastructure[1] to manage and give access to in situ river runoff operational data (~170 stations) and historical trends (~550 stations - the EMODnet Physics is based on the Global Runoff Data Base collection).

  • Total Suspended Matter

Total Suspended Matter (unit: % of suspended particles, not dissolved) is a gridded product based on the CoastColour L2W Concentrations Data, obtained from the OC4 algorithm for clear and moderate turbid waters, and from the CoastColour v1 neural network. The L2W product is then remapped on a regular grid, maintaining 300m full resolution, in order to obtain products over the European sea basins and monthly averaged. The product covers the period 2012 – 2013.

  • Impulsive Noise Event Registry

A regional impulsive noise registry gives support to the Regional Sea Convention in providing information that will feed regional assessments, and to the reporting by its contracting parties to MSFD descriptor 11.1.1 (Low and mid-frequency impulsive noise). The data are collated nationally from registers of licenced events such as pile driving, controlled explosions from naval operations and other activities that release energy. Starting from the already implemented regional registries of impulsive noise, EMODnet Physics harmonised and integrated the registry into one single discoverable interface. The ICES statistical sub-rectangles (10’ lat*20’ long) were extended to cover the Mediterranean Sea, the noise event shape files were harvested from the HELCOM, OSPAR and ACCOBAMS hosting repositories, and the events falling into the block were considered to have the pulse event days per block.

  • Sound Maps

TG NOISE has made progress on this concept and it has lately started discussing how to implement the MSFD indicator. It is also likely to combine and correlate sound/noise maps vs biodiversity maps. The main source of continuous noise is human activity, and in particular shipping, and according to the MSFD the Sound Pressure Level (@ 1uPa) should be extracted for the two-third octave band (cantered @ 63Hz and 125Hz – lately was also added 2KHz). The noise map can be based on ship density maps combined to a model of noise propagation at sea. This product should be calibrated (or the map uncertainty should be assessed) by in situ data. EMODnet Physics is implementing such an approach by running the pilot for the areas in which in situ data is available, and it is developing a common method to manage and federate the in situ operational SPL data.

  • Ice Extent and Ice-type

This product covers both the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans. It is based on the SEAICE_GLO_SEAICE_L4_NRT_OBSERVATIONS_011_001 that is developed by SIW-METNO-OSLO-NO for CMEMS.  EMODnet Physics is integrating that product together with in situ observations and, only for the Arctic, the Seasonal Ice Extent (million square kms) as computed by the Arctic Regional Ocean Observing System. The product provides, in operational mode: sea ice concentration, sea ice edge, sea ice type (OSI-401 OSI-402 and OSI-403). These products have daily data starting from 2005 at 10km resolution.


  • Wave and winds – Sea State

Sea State is the characterisation of wave and swell, typically in terms of height, wavelength, period, and directional wave energy flux. Although it is well known that sea state strongly impacts on marine safety, marine transport and damage to structures, the availability of in situ wave and wind observations is still very limited. These data are accessible in EMODnet Physics, integrating several data sources (Data Buoy Cooperation Panel, OceanSITES, regional observations in Europe – CMEMS INSTAC, US - IOOS, Australia – IMOS, etc.) into one single catalogue. Operational data are aggregated into a synoptic dynamic view.






All platforms

Service description @


Latest 60 days of data


Postgresql + Geoserver


 examples and service description @



Latest 60 days + HFR data + Ice


Latest 60 days


All plots

Users and uses

See EMODnet Physics Use Case



European Maritime Day Conference

European Maritime Day this year is going virtual from Den Helder, The Netherlands on 20 and 21 May 2021. European Maritime Day is a 2-day conference. High-level plenary sessions including inspirational speakers, leadership exchanges and stakeholders’ workshops attract experts and stakeholders from across Europe and beyond. EMODnet Secretariat will host a stakeholder workshop on “Ocean Observation and Marine Data for the Blue Economy”.

20 May 2021 to 21 May 2021

EMODnet Open Conference and Jamboree - Pre-registration now open for this online event!

The second EMODnet Open Conference and Jamboree will take place from 14 until 18 June 2021 fully online. Pre-register now!

14 Jun 2021 to 18 Jun 2021
Online event

Online ocean literacy workshop on the European Atlas of the Seas

Join us for the ocean literacy workshop on the European Atlas of the Seas organised by the EMODnet Secretariat in the framework of the EMODnet Open Conference to learn about the many different aspects of the Atlas!
16 Jun 2021